<p> Cognitive Distortion: </ p>
<p> Although you are convinced of their correctness, most negative thoughts that make you feel bad are false and unrealistic. For example: After you break up an erotic relationship or divorce, you think, “I’m for all, no one loves me, I will never have a close relationship with another person.” You feel so agitated that all of this seems totally true to you, and you believe your life is over. After a few months you start and go out with a woman and you start and feel that you are again close to a man. Suddenly you realize that in the end you can become dear, that you are not entirely responsible for the dissolution of your previous relationship. You wonder how in the good you believed all those with which you loaded yourself.
<p> Text D. Burns – Performance in English Petros Sapinakis, Assistant Professor at the University of Ioannina
This is one of the strange things that happen with the bad mood – we often deceive ourselves and live in misery accepting things that are simply not true. And the paradox is that we usually do not have the slightest suspicion that we may be deceived by our own misery and self-criticism.
The following table describes the ten kinds of distorted thoughts that lead to negative emotions. Study this list carefully because you will often refer to it during the practical exercises that you yourself will do. This list changed the life of many people. </ P>
<p> 1. Bipolar Thought (“All or nothing” or “white-black”) You think absolutely like there is only white and black. If something is not perfect, you consider it to be a complete failure. For example, when a dieting woman ate a teaspoon of ice cream, she thought “I destroyed my diet completely”. This thought was so stormy that she ate the whole bowl! </ P>
<p> 2. Transgeneration: A single negative event, such as discarding or a difficult job, is interpreted as an endless chain of many negative events, using words like “always” or “never” when you think about it. A depressing salesman was horribly annoyed when he saw a dump on the windshield of his car. He thought, “What a miser I am!
<p> 3. Cognitive Filter: You distinguish a unique negative detail and focus on it exclusively, so your view of reality is “colored” accordingly, such as painting a glass of water with a drop of ink. Example: Make a presentation to your colleagues at work and you get a lot of positive feedback from them about your job. But one of them says something that is relatively critical, and you are constantly worried about his reaction for days, ignoring all the positive feedback you have received. </ P>
<p> 4. Disregarding Positive: Ignore positive experiences by insisting that they “do not count.” When you do a good job you might think it was not that good or that anyone could have done it. The degrading of your positive ones “steals” the joy of life and makes you feel that you are inadequate and that you do not have the rewards you should. </ P>
<p> 5. Arbitrary Conclusions: You make negative conclusions, but there is no evidence to support this conclusion. There are two kinds of such thinking: </ p>
<p> a) “Reading” the thought of others: Without checking if it is so, you arbitrarily conclude that someone reacts negatively to you. </ P>
<p> b) Predicting the Future: You predict that things will get a negative turn for you in the future. For example, before the exam, you may say, “Getting the rage! As I’m going, I will definitely fail”. A depressed may say, “I will never be well.” </ P>
<p> 6. Maximize or Minimize: Increase the importance of your problems, or minimize the importance of your positive experiences. For example, you do not advance the time limit for delivering a job and you say, “This is my disaster.” </ P>
<a href=”http://aadhars.com/category/aadhar-update/”>Aadhar Update</a>
<p> 7. Emotional Reasoning: You accept that the negative emotions you feel reflect the reality – since you feel so, so it will be. For example, “I feel really bad, I really must be very bad,” or “I feel terribly anxious to fly, Airplane flights must be very dangerous,” or “I feel very angry. “I feel very inferior. Finally, I’m probably a second-class man.” </ P>
<p> 8. You must: You say to yourself that things should happen as you expected or hoped. A talented pianist, having played a very tricky piece, thought, “I should not have made so many mistakes.” This made him disappointed so much that he abandoned his practice for many days. The phrases “must”, “owe”, “so is the right” etc. all have the same negative effect. These phrases when directed at you lead him to feelings of guilt and frustration. When they are directed to others or the world in general, they usually lead to feelings of anger and frustration: “He should not have been so stubborn and hostile.” </ P>
<p> Many people are trying to mobilize themselves with “must” – “no” phrases, as if they are some illegal people who must first be punished before doing anything. “I did not have to eat this sweet”. This usually does not work because all these must make you rebellious and tend to do the opposite. </ P>
<p> 9. Incorrect Characterization: This is an extreme form of bipolar thinking. Instead of saying, “I made a mistake,” you are negatively characterizing yourself as saying, “I am unsuccessful.” You may also call yourself “stupid”, “stupid” or “a mere failure”. Characterization is completely absurd, because your self does not identify with the things you do. Human beings exist, but “fools”, “failed” or “idiots” do not exist. These ratings are useless deductions that lead to anger, anxiety, frustration, and low self-esteem. </ P>
<p> You may also be calling other people. When someone does something you do not agree with, you may think, “This is a fool.” In this way you feel that the problem with each other is in its “character” rather than thinking it’s the way it thinks or behaves. You see him as totally evil. This makes you feel hostility and believe it is impossible to find ways to communicate and improve the situation. </ P>
<p> 10. Personalization or Category Launch: Personalization occurs when you consider yourself solely responsible for the outcome of a – usually negative – event, but that does not depend entirely on you. When a mother took her child’s bad control from school she said, “This proves how bad a mother I am,” rather than sit down to think about the causes of the problem and really help her child. Another woman when her husband struck her said: “I would not beat if I was better in bed.” Personalization leads to feelings of guilt, shame, and inadequacy. </ P>
<p> Some people do the exact opposite. They accuse others or situations of their problems, and overlook causes that may contribute to them. For example, “The reason why my marriage does not work well is because my husband is so absurd.” These categories are never performing because usually others will reject the charges and defend in the same way. </ P>